Understanding Autoimmune Diseases in Women

As your primary care doctors here at MD2.0 primary care doctors in Jupiter, Florida, we believe in keeping you informed about the latest developments in healthcare that could impact your well-being. Recently, a significant study led by researchers at Stanford Medicine has provided valuable insights into autoimmune diseases, particularly regarding their prevalence among women.

Autoimmune diseases affect millions of Americans, with up to 50 million individuals diagnosed with various conditions. What’s striking is that approximately 80% of those affected are women. This gender disparity has long puzzled healthcare professionals, but recent research sheds light on a crucial factor: the X chromosome.

In autoimmune diseases, the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells and tissues in the body. This can lead to conditions such as type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, Crohn’s disease, psoriasis, and scleroderma. The Stanford study highlights the role of the X chromosome in contributing to the increased susceptibility of women to these conditions.

Unlike men with one X chromosome and one Y chromosome, women possess two X chromosomes. Within each cell of a woman’s body, one X chromosome is deactivated to prevent an overabundance of gene expression. However, this deactivation process can lead to the formation of unfamiliar molecular structures that may trigger autoimmune responses.

The research, published in the journal Cell, demonstrates how a specific RNA molecule called Xist plays a pivotal role in regulating gene expression on the X chromosome. By studying mice models engineered to produce Xist without silencing their X chromosome, researchers observed the development of lupus-like autoimmunity, similar to what is seen in female mice.

What does this mean for you, our patients, and our readers? It underscores the importance of understanding the gender-specific factors contributing to autoimmune diseases. By staying informed about these insights, you can better advocate for your health and well-being.

Suppose you have a family history of autoimmune diseases or are experiencing symptoms such as persistent fatigue, joint pain, or unexplained skin issues. In that case, it’s essential to discuss these concerns with us during your next visit. Early detection and management are key to effectively managing autoimmune conditions and maintaining your overall health.

As your trusted healthcare provider, we are committed to providing you with the highest quality of care tailored to your individual needs. Whether through preventive screenings, lifestyle modifications, or personalized treatment plans, we are here to support you every step of the way.

Thank you for entrusting us with your health. If you have any questions or would like to schedule an appointment to discuss your concerns further, please don’t hesitate to contact us. Together, we can navigate the complexities of autoimmune diseases and work towards achieving optimal health and wellness.

Understanding the Rise of Colorectal Cancer in Young Adults: Insights from the Latest ACS Report

The Alarming Statistics: A Closer Look

The American Cancer Society’s (ACS) recent report published in CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians brings to light a concerning trend: colorectal cancer is now among the leading causes of cancer deaths for young adults in the United States. The report, drawing data from central cancer registries and the National Center for Health Statistics, indicates a steady increase in colorectal cancer cases among adults younger than 50. In the late 1990s, it was the fourth-leading cause of cancer death in this age group, but as of 2024, it has escalated to be the leading cause of cancer deaths in men and the second-leading cause in women under 50. Our primary care doctors in Jupiter are here to give you the findings of this report.

Insights from Experts

Dr. Aparna Parikh, medical director of the Center for Young Adult Colorectal Cancer at the Mass General Cancer Center, expresses concern over these rising rates, especially among young men. The reasons behind this increase are complex. According to Dr. Parikh, it’s an interplay of various factors such as dietary, environmental, and possibly antibiotic exposures, combined with individual risk factors and early life exposures.

Risk Factors Revisited

Key risk factors highlighted by Dr. Parikh include:

  1. Family History: A significant risk factor for colorectal cancer.
  2. Lifestyle Factors: Obesity, smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, and a diet high in red and processed meats contribute to increased risk.
  3. Medical History: Inflammatory bowel disease and a personal or family history of polyps.
  4. Unexplained Cases: Interestingly, many people who develop colorectal cancer have no apparent risk factors, suggesting a complex interplay between genetic predisposition and environmental factors.

Prevention and Early Detection

The report emphasizes the importance of public awareness about early symptom recognition. Symptoms such as unexplained weight loss, blood in stool, anemia, or changes in bowel habits should prompt immediate medical consultation.

Dr. Parikh recommends early screening, stating that colonoscopy remains the gold standard, with screening starting at age 45. Stool-based tests are also viable options.

Lifestyle Recommendations

To lower the risk, adopting certain healthy lifestyle habits is crucial:

  • Limit red meat consumption.
  • Avoid smoking.
  • Engage in regular exercise.
  • Adopt a Mediterranean-based diet.

Broader Cancer Trends

The ACS report also notes that, while overall cancer mortality is declining due to earlier detection and improved treatments, several types of cancers, including cervical, breast, pancreas, and uterine corpus cancers, are on the rise among different age groups.

The rising trend of colorectal cancer among young adults is a stark reminder of the need for heightened awareness and proactive health measures. Regular screening, lifestyle modifications, and early symptom recognition are key in combating this disease. As primary care doctors, our role in educating, screening, and guiding patients is more crucial than ever in the face of these emerging trends.

Important Flu Season Update from Your Concierge Doctors in Jupiter

As your trusted Concierge Doctors in Jupiter, we are committed to keeping you informed about health concerns that might affect our community. This year, we face a challenging flu season that has seen a significant rise in influenza cases and other respiratory illnesses across 38 states, as reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This update is particularly relevant as we navigate the period between Christmas and New Year’s, which has shown a dramatic increase in flu activity.

The CDC’s latest report is alarming yet crucial for our awareness: since October, there have been at least 10 million flu-related illnesses, leading to 110,000 hospitalizations and 6,500 deaths. These figures emphasize the severity of the current flu season, which generally peaks between December and February.

On a more reassuring note, the CDC director has confirmed that this year’s flu shots are well-matched to combat the prevalent strain. This is a significant factor in controlling the spread and severity of the flu, and we strongly encourage you to get vaccinated if you haven’t already.

In our local area, including our practice in Jupiter, pediatricians have noted an increase in respiratory illnesses among children and young adults up to age 21. Reflecting on the situation at Johns Hopkins All Children’s Hospital, Dr. Megan Martin mentions, “We’re still seeing RSV and COVID as well. It’s keeping our emergency department pretty busy with all of these respiratory illnesses.”

In December, the hospital reported a rise in flu A and B cases, with 431 instances, and more than 185 cases of RSV. Additionally, 61 patients tested positive for COVID-19. Dr. Martin compares this to pre-pandemic years, noting that while it’s not the worst flu season, it is notably rigorous compared to the pandemic years when mask-wearing reduced transmission significantly.

At our Concierge Doctors office in Jupiter, we are closely monitoring these developments and are here to support your health needs during this flu season. We advise our patients to take preventive measures such as getting vaccinated, practicing good hygiene, and being mindful of symptoms. If you or your family members are experiencing flu-like symptoms, please reach out to us for guidance and treatment options.

Our priority is your health and well-being. By staying informed and proactive, we can collectively navigate through this flu season safely. Remember, we are here to assist you with any health concerns you may have.

West Nile Virus Case Confirmed: What You Need to Know

The sunny and picturesque locale of Sarasota County is known for its beautiful beaches, art scene, and outdoor activities. However, a recent advisory by the Florida Department of Health (DOH) has alerted locals and visitors. The reason? A confirmed human case of the West Nile Virus in the community. Our primary care doctors in Jupiter want to make sure you have all of the information.

What Happened?

In early September, the DOH in Sarasota County identified a single human case of the West Nile Virus. Thankfully, the patient has since received treatment and is on the path to recovery. This isn’t the first health scare in the region, however. Over the summer, the area saw seven reported cases of locally transmitted malaria.

Understanding the West Nile Virus

For those unfamiliar, the West Nile Virus is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito. While many infected people might not display symptoms, the virus can lead to severe illnesses like encephalitis or meningitis in some. The young, elderly, and those with compromised immune systems are particularly vulnerable.

Precautions to Take

The DOH in Sarasota County is urging residents and visitors alike to remain vigilant. Taking basic precautions can significantly reduce the risk of mosquito bites and potential exposure to the virus.

Avoiding Outdoors at Dusk and Dawn: These are peak mosquito activity times. If you have to be outside, make sure to wear long sleeves and pants.
Use Repellents: Apply mosquito repellent that contains DEET, picaridin, or oil of lemon eucalyptus on exposed skin and clothing.
Clear Standing Water: Mosquitoes breed in standing water. Regularly check and empty any containers in your yard that might collect water.
Use Screens: Ensure that doors and windows have tight-fitting screens to keep mosquitoes out.

Local Health Response

The Florida Department of Health in Sarasota County is likely ramping up its mosquito control efforts in light of this recent West Nile Virus case and the earlier reported malaria cases. It’s a reminder that while we enjoy the outdoor beauty that places like Sarasota offer, we must remain proactive in our efforts to stay safe and healthy.


It’s important to note that such advisories are not meant to incite panic but to inform and equip the public with the necessary knowledge to take preventive measures. By working together, understanding the risks, and practicing preventative habits, the Sarasota community can ensure a safer environment for all.

Stay informed, stay vigilant, and always prioritize your health and safety.

Caring for a Loved One with Dementia: Insights from Bruce Willis’ Journey

Dementia is a condition that affects not only the person diagnosed but also their entire circle of family and friends. Recently, the world learned about Hollywood actor Bruce Willis’ diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia, offering an opportunity to explore the essential aspects of caring for a loved one with dementia. In this article, our primary care doctors in Jupiter delve into the challenges and insights that come with dementia caregiving, drawing inspiration from Willis’ situation and the compassionate approach of his family.

Understanding Dementia Care

Caring for someone with dementia is a deeply emotional and often exhausting experience. Dementia is not a single disease but a set of cognitive impairments, each person’s experience is unique. To provide effective care, one must understand the nature of the condition and its progression.

  1. Education is Key

Just as Emma Heming, Bruce Willis’ wife, emphasized the importance of educating their children about dementia, caregivers should also educate themselves. Understanding the specific type of dementia, its symptoms, and its progression can help caregivers better anticipate and manage challenges.

  1. Open and Honest Communication

Heming’s approach to open and honest communication is invaluable. It helps demystify dementia, reduce stigma, and create a supportive environment. Caregivers should encourage their loved ones to express their feelings and thoughts, even as dementia progresses.

  1. Patience and Flexibility

Dementia can lead to mood swings, confusion, and agitation. Patience is a crucial virtue for caregivers, as well as the ability to adapt to changing situations. What works one day may not work the next, and flexibility is key to providing the best care.

  1. Routine and Structure

Creating a daily routine can help individuals with dementia feel more secure and oriented. Establishing a familiar schedule for meals, activities, and rest can provide comfort and reduce anxiety.

  1. Safety Measures

As dementia progresses, individuals may become prone to wandering or forget to turn off appliances. Ensuring a safe living environment by installing locks and alarms, and removing potential hazards, is essential.

  1. Seek Professional Help

Caregiving can be overwhelming, and it’s crucial for caregivers to acknowledge their own limits. Professional assistance, such as home health aides, support groups, or respite care, can provide much-needed relief and support.

  1. Self-Care

Caregivers must prioritize self-care to maintain their own physical and emotional well-being. Neglecting self-care can lead to caregiver burnout, which ultimately affects the quality of care provided.

Bruce Willis’ Journey as an Inspiration

Bruce Willis’ battle with dementia, as shared by his friend Glenn Gordon Caron, serves as a poignant reminder that dementia does not diminish a person’s essence. Despite cognitive decline, individuals with dementia retain their core qualities. Caregivers should strive to see and appreciate these qualities, just as Caron continues to do.


Caring for a loved one with dementia is a challenging and emotional journey, but it can also be a deeply rewarding one. Bruce Willis’ experience sheds light on the importance of empathy, communication, and education in dementia caregiving. By understanding the nature of the condition, adopting a compassionate approach, and seeking support when needed, caregivers can provide the best possible care to their loved ones, helping them navigate the complexities of dementia with dignity and grace.

Flu Season Preparation: Creating a Personalized Flu Prevention Plan

Flu season can bring about a flurry of sniffles, coughs, and body aches which are often accompanied by a flurry of doctor’s appointments and sick days. It tends to peak between December and February but can last from October to as late as May. Preparing for this time of year is essential in not only protecting your own health but also the health of those around you. The key to this preparation is crafting a personalized flu prevention plan. Our primary care doctors in Jupiter have some tips on how you can create yours:

Step 1: Know Your Risk

Some individuals are at a higher risk for severe flu and complications. This includes young children, pregnant women, individuals with chronic health conditions, and people aged 65 and older. Understanding your risk will help you take the necessary precautions.

Step 2: Get Vaccinated

The annual flu vaccine is the most effective way to prevent flu. It is advisable for everyone six months and older to get a flu vaccine every year. Make sure to consult with your healthcare provider to find the right flu vaccine for you.

Step 3: Practice Good Hygiene

Good hygiene is a powerful tool in preventing the flu. Make sure to:

  • Wash your hands frequently with soap and water for at least 20 seconds.
  • Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue or your elbow when coughing or sneezing.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth.

Step 4: Boost Your Immune System

Maintaining a strong immune system can help ward off the flu. Ensure you are:

  • Eating a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains.
  • Getting regular exercise.
  • Sleeping for 7-9 hours each night.
  • Managing stress through mindfulness practices like meditation or yoga.

Step 5: Avoid Close Contact

Avoid close contact with individuals who are sick, and if you are feeling unwell, stay home to prevent spreading the flu to others.

Step 6: Seek Medical Advice

If you’re at high risk for flu complications or have severe flu symptoms, contact your healthcare provider. Antiviral drugs can be a treatment option.

Step 7: Create a Sick-Day Plan

Have a plan in place for managing sick days whether it’s for you or your family. Know your employer’s policies on sick leave and have a plan for childcare if necessary.


Facing the flu season unprepared can be daunting. However, by understanding your risk and having a personalized flu prevention plan in place, you can significantly reduce the likelihood of falling ill. Remember, a little preparation now can save a lot of trouble later. Your health and the health of those around you is worth the effort.

Chronic Disease Management: Strategies for a Comfortable Lifestyle

Chronic diseases, including heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, and respiratory diseases, pose significant challenges to millions of individuals worldwide. Managing these conditions effectively not only prolongs life expectancy but also significantly enhances the quality of life. Our primary care doctors in Jupiter are here with strategies that can aid in comfortable lifestyle management for individuals navigating chronic illnesses.

Understanding Chronic Diseases

Before diving into the strategies, it is essential to understand what chronic diseases are. These are long-term medical conditions that are generally progressive, meaning they can worsen over time. They often require a multifaceted approach to management to help patients lead fulfilling lives.

Strategies for a Comfortable Lifestyle

  1. Education and Awareness

Knowledge is power — understanding your condition, its symptoms, potential complications, and management strategies can be empowering. Leveraging resources like therapy groups, online forums, and educational workshops can be beneficial.

2. Tailored Nutrition Plans

A well-rounded nutrition plan is often the cornerstone of managing chronic diseases. Collaborate with a dietitian to create a nutritionally balanced meal plan that caters to your individual health needs.

3. Regular Physical Activity

Engaging in physical activity that is appropriate for your condition can help in maintaining a healthy body weight and improving overall wellbeing. Even light activities such as walking or yoga can make a considerable difference.

4. Stress Management

Chronic diseases can often be exacerbated by stress. Mindfulness, meditation, and other stress management techniques can aid in keeping symptoms at bay. Learn to identify stress triggers and work on strategies to manage them effectively.

5. Medication Management

Being consistent with your medication regimen is vital. Organize your medications using pill organizers and set reminders to take your medicines as prescribed.

6. Regular Health Check-ups

Consistent monitoring of your health through regular check-ups can help in the early identification of any potential issues and manage them promptly.

7. Leveraging Technology

Utilize technology to aid in disease management. Apps that track physical activity, diet, and medication can be incredibly handy.

8. Emotional Support

Living with a chronic disease can sometimes be isolating. Support groups, family, friends, and therapy can offer the emotional sustenance required to navigate the daily challenges posed by chronic diseases.

9. Adequate Sleep

Ensure that you are getting sufficient and quality sleep as it plays a crucial role in the healing and regeneration processes of the body.

10. Personalized Care Plans

Collaborate with your healthcare provider to develop a personalized care plan that is holistic and considers all aspects of your health, including physical, mental, and social wellbeing.

Managing a chronic disease is a continuous journey, often characterized by ups and downs. While the goal is to create a comfortable and fulfilling lifestyle, it is essential to remain patient with yourself during the process. By implementing the above strategies, you pave the way to not just manage your chronic disease but to thrive in spite of it. Remember, a happy and comfortable life is not only possible but within your reach through comprehensive and compassionate chronic disease management.

What Diabetes Does to Your Eyes and What You Can Do About It

Diabetes is a chronic condition that affects millions worldwide. While many are aware of its impact on blood sugar levels and its potential complications related to the heart, kidneys, and nerves, our concierge doctors in Jupiter want you to understand its link to vision. In fact, diabetes is one of the leading causes of blindness in adults. But how does this condition affect the eyes, and what can you do to protect your vision?

The Connection Between Diabetes and Eyesight

Our eyes are incredibly intricate and sensitive organs. The clear lens at the front and the retina, a thin layer of tissue lining the back of the eye, play vital roles in our ability to see. When blood sugar levels surge, as they often do in diabetes, these structures can be adversely affected.

Diabetic Eye Diseases

There are several eye conditions tied to diabetes:

  • Diabetic Retinopathy: This is the most common diabetic eye disease. High blood sugar levels can cause damage to the blood vessels in the retina, making them leak or hemorrhage. Over time, this can lead to vision impairment or blindness.
  • Diabetic Macular Edema (DME): A consequence of diabetic retinopathy, DME involves swelling in the macula, the part of the retina responsible for clear, sharp vision.
  • Glaucoma: Diabetes doubles the risk of glaucoma, a condition where increased pressure inside the eye damages the optic nerve.
  • Cataracts: Those with diabetes are more likely to develop cataracts at a younger age and the progression can be faster than in those without diabetes.

Preventing Eye Complications

Thankfully, you’re not powerless against these potential complications. Here are steps you can take:

  • Regular Eye Check-ups: Schedule a comprehensive eye exam at least once a year. Early detection is the key to successful management and treatment.
  • Control Blood Sugar Levels: Monitor your blood sugar levels diligently and follow your doctor’s advice regarding medication, diet, and exercise.
  • Manage Blood Pressure and Cholesterol: High blood pressure and cholesterol can exacerbate eye problems in diabetics. Regular check-ups and medication can help keep these in check.
  • Avoid Smoking: Smoking can accelerate complications related to diabetes, including those that affect your eyes.
  • Protect Your Eyes: Use sunglasses with UV protection and avoid activities that risk eye injury.
  • Know the Symptoms: Be aware of vision changes such as blurry vision, floaters, frequent prescription changes, or any vision loss. Report these to your ophthalmologist immediately.

Treatment Options

If you’re diagnosed with a diabetic eye disease, treatment options can vary based on the severity of the condition:

  • Laser Therapy: Used for diabetic retinopathy to reduce the leakage of abnormal blood vessels.
  • Vitrectomy: A procedure to remove the gel-like substance inside the eye, often used when there’s bleeding or significant scar tissue from diabetic retinopathy.
  • Injections: Medications can be injected into the eye to reduce swelling and improve vision.
  • Surgery: In advanced cases of glaucoma or cataracts, surgical interventions might be necessary.

Diabetes doesn’t necessarily mean you’ll have eye problems, but it does increase the risk. With proactive measures, regular check-ups, and early detection, many diabetic eye diseases can be managed or even prevented. Protecting your eyes starts with understanding the link between your health and your vision, and taking action to ensure both remain in optimal condition.

The Top Benefits of Concierge Medicine for Those with Chronic Illness

Living with a chronic illness can be an arduous journey, filled with numerous medical appointments, complex treatment plans, and the need for continuous support. In such circumstances, having a reliable and personalized healthcare experience becomes essential. Our concierge doctors in Jupiter have a healthcare model that offers tailored and overs comprehensive services to patients, focusing on quality, accessibility, and patient satisfaction. Here are a few reasons why individuals with chronic illnesses should consider embracing concierge medicine for a more fulfilling and manageable healthcare experience.

  1. Personalized and Holistic Approach: One of the primary advantages of concierge medicine is the personalized care it provides. Patients with chronic illnesses often require individualized treatment plans that consider their unique medical history, lifestyle, and preferences. Concierge medicine doctors have smaller patient loads, enabling them to devote more time and attention to each individual. This personalized approach allows them to better understand their patient’s needs, creating holistic treatment plans that address not only the medical condition but also the patient’s emotional and mental well-being.
  2. Accessibility and Availability: For those living with chronic illnesses, sudden health complications or concerns can arise at any time. With traditional healthcare models, getting an urgent appointment can be challenging, leading to unnecessary stress and delays in treatment. Concierge medicine, on the other hand, ensures enhanced accessibility and availability. Patients can often reach their concierge doctor 24/7, allowing them to receive timely medical advice and attention when they need it the most.
  3. Reduced Waiting Times: In conventional medical settings, long waiting times are a common frustration for patients. For individuals managing a chronic illness, these waiting times can be physically taxing and detrimental to their well-being. Concierge medicine practices limit the number of patients they accept, resulting in significantly reduced waiting times during appointments. Patients can expect to be seen promptly, without feeling rushed during their visits.
  4. Comprehensive Care Coordination: Chronic illnesses often require the expertise of various specialists and healthcare providers. Coordinating these different aspects of care can become cumbersome and disjointed in traditional healthcare settings. Concierge medicine doctors typically take on the role of care coordinator, ensuring seamless communication and collaboration between specialists and healthcare teams. This streamlined approach to care helps prevent medical errors, ensures efficient treatment plans, and provides patients with peace of mind.
  5. Preventive Medicine Emphasis: Preventing complications and managing symptoms are essential aspects of managing chronic illnesses effectively. Concierge medicine doctors place significant emphasis on preventive care, focusing on regular health screenings, lifestyle modifications, and personalized preventive measures. By proactively addressing health concerns, concierge medicine can help individuals with chronic illnesses lead healthier lives and minimize the risk of disease exacerbation.
  6. Extended Appointment Times: Time is a valuable resource in healthcare, and having more extended appointment times is a luxury that concierge medicine provides. Patients with chronic illnesses often require more time to discuss their concerns, understand treatment options, and build a trusting relationship with their doctor. With concierge medicine, patients can enjoy extended appointment durations, fostering open and transparent communication with their healthcare provider.

For those dealing with chronic illnesses, concierge medicine offers a refreshing alternative to traditional healthcare models. By prioritizing personalized care, accessibility, and comprehensive support, concierge medicine empowers patients to take charge of their health and well-being. Though the concept of concierge medicine may have been seen as exclusive in the past, its increasing popularity and availability are making it a viable option for many individuals. Ultimately, choosing concierge medicine can lead to a more fulfilling and manageable healthcare journey for those living with chronic illnesses.

Should You Worry About Catching Bird Flu?

Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, we’ve all learned a lot more than we ever wanted to know about viruses and how they work, including how they mutate and how they can spread from animals to humans.

So the recent widespread outbreaks of bird flu have made some people a bit anxious, mainly because it has been reported in a number of mammals.

Our concierge primary care doctors in Jupiter want to explain why you shouldn’t be overly concerned, although there is an element of risk. Here’s what scientists are saying.


According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), although avian influenza A, popularly known as “bird flu,” viruses usually do not infect people, “there have been some rare cases of human infection with these viruses.”

Infected birds shed the virus through their saliva, mucus, and feces. Bird flu can transmit to humans when a virus from one of these sources gets into a person’s eyes, nose, or mouth, or is inhaled, either from unprotected contact with infected birds or with surfaces contaminated with these viruses.

Some infections in humans, however, haven’t been traced directly to this type of transmission—in other words, no one knows how these “very rare” cases happened. That means some cases may have passed from human to human.

But historically, other types of bird flu have been responsible for several flu pandemics in America’s history, including the devastating H1N1 flu pandemic in 1918-1919, which killed 50 million people worldwide. (The current strain is Type A H5N1, which is not related.)

Recent Outbreaks

The current H5N1 flu virus was first identified in 1959 and can be found in wild birds in all 50 states, along with backyard flocks in most states, including one in a backyard flock in Florida last month, according to the CDC.

In the last year, 58 million birds were slaughtered because of the H5N1 bird flu. In addition, it began transmitting to mammals, including hundreds of wild sea lions in Peru and a farm of minks in Europe. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) also reported last month that the virus has been detected in skunks, bears, a raccoon, and red foxes.

Most of these mammal infections were probably stand-alone cases in which the mammal ate an infected bird, Jürgen Richt, professor, and director of the Center on Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases at Kansas State University, told USA Today.

The exception could be the October mink outbreak, he said, in which the virus transmitted from mammal to mammal. And because humans have never been exposed to H5N1, we don’t have any immunity to it—just as we didn’t to the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus.

“If this virus has mammalian adaption and can transmit between mammals, humans are immunologically naive . . . and humans are mammals,” Richt said.

Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, director-general of the World Health Organization (WHO), said last month that avian influenza’s spillover to mammal species must be monitored closely, but that the risk to humans remained low for the moment.

“But we cannot assume that will remain the case, and we must prepare for any change in the status quo,” he said.

Low Chance

Still, most virologists aren’t yet alarmed, because the virus would need to mutate in a certain way in order to spread to humans.

“It’s a series of events, each of which is fairly improbable,” Anice Lowen, a virologist and associate professor at Emory University School of Medicine, told NBC News.

“This is why I say the risk to humans is presently low,” she said. “The evolutionary barriers are high. It’s a numbers game,” she added, meaning the large numbers of outbreaks around the world are in the virus’s favor, but it would need to undergo a complicated string of mutations to be able to pass to humans.

Nevertheless, the mink farm infestation caught scientists’ attention, even though none of the workers at the farm became ill.

CNN reports that researchers found multiple mutations of the virus in the minks, including one that made it better at replicating in mammals.

“But it’s when it starts to spread from one mammal to the next mammal to the next mammal, it’s in those environments where we think it’s most likely that it will pick up these changes that allow us to switch hosts, and that’s why we get concerned,” Richard Webby, an infectious disease researcher at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee, told CNN. Webby is also the director of WHO’s Collaborating Centre for Studies on the Ecology of Influenza in Animals and Birds.

Staying Safe

Of course, we can’t predict the future, and as we saw with COVID-19, viruses have a way of getting out of hand.

So the CDC recommends a few precautions, such as never handling a dead bird without gloves and a mask.

Songbirds don’t (yet) appear affected, nor do such wild birds as crows or pigeons, so backyard birders don’t need to worry. And the CDC says it’s safe to eat poultry and eggs that are properly handled and cooked.

“The chances are not zero that you could get this, and anything you can do to further reduce that risk is a good thing,” Webby told CNN.

“But you probably really have to work hard to be infected with this virus,” he said.

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